How database versioning boosts your business growth?
Applications are neither ideal nor perfect. Along with the dynamic implementation environments and rapid technology changes, certain features can become obsolete and some new ones might be needed. Workflows and processes in the application need to be changed. Bugs and vulnerabilities can be reported any time. Competitors may release a new feature that demands you to reciprocate with matching or better feature. The chances are huge for you to initiate, perform and deliver a stable minor or major version. A delay or absence in this can negatively affect the reputation and/or monetary attributes like market performance, profit etc. In these circumstances, it is essential for you to make available for your teams, tools that automates and simplifies processes as much as possible. Applications or services have code and databases are integral parts of any product. A properly version controlled database boosts and simplifies development and production deployment processes. It also helps in critical analysis, comparison and cross review of your application sets. The results give you new insights and directions for a new promising version release and you can focus on your business growth, since everything is automated.
Advantages of general version control
Version Control (VC) is important to organizations due to the following factors:
1. It allows tracking changes and modifications.
2. It allows comparison of any 2 versions and to roll back to a previous version if something went wrong in the current version.
3. Multiple teams can share a single repository with their own branches (that represent a different functionality or feature) and can pull from the main branch or root and can push into the main branch to merge their work with that of other teams’ branches.
4. Interim releases or minor versions and major version releases can be effectively performed.
5. Provides an automated and robust workflow for fixing errors or bugs in the form of patches (a new branch that fixes the bug) and hotfixes that addresses customer’s revised needs.
6. Enables organizations to adopt agile development and delivery in which new features can be added as per market needs efficiently.
Why businesses need database versioning – technology and process perspective.
While the above advantages are clear and a necessity for application codebase, when it comes to databases where the applications work with real data and data structures or schemas, version control achieves more significance. This can be attributed to many reasons, some of which are:
1. Technology, business environment and customer requirement changes pushes businesses to alter and adapt their database to best suite the necessity of the current time. If this is ignored, businesses suffer setbacks like losses in market share, decrease in product popularity and reduced relevance of the product due to lack of required features etc.
2. Even if application codebase utilizes version control to implement agile delivery models that enable the product to be in sync with market needs through minor and major version releases and patches, code developers at some point of time get stuck due to the complexity of database modifications that occurred in tandem with feature or code changes. At certain levels of branch merges, a mismatch or disparity in database related code or the database itself can break the entire merging process.
3. Database changes (structure, metadata and data) made by one team or branch, need to fully managed and tracked to aid error-free merging for minor and major releases. If database versioning is not implemented along with code versioning, some branches will not merge properly resulting in bugs and errors.
4. It might need to go back for a previous version of code at some point of time. This rollback requires the database at that time so that rolled back version is bug-free. Also there can be occasions when you need to audit your database versions to identify the best performed one. Database versions along with corresponding code versions enable auditing and continuous delivery patterns.
What to be brought under database versioning?
The database schema, metadata and data itself are the main elements that need to be version controlled. While it is not logical or recommended to version the database source code or binary, the above mentioned elements fit perfectly as candidates for version control in an agile, continuous integration and delivery scenario. All 3 elements can be represented as SQL files and it becomes as easy as file versioning with SQL files and other needed log files only to be put under version control. Another prominent element that needs versioning is backups. These will be compressed SQL files and will be represented as physical or logical backups. They also can be incremental backups where the binary log implements some kind of version control without much automation.
Implementing database versioning
A best practice to make your database fit for version control is using scripts, preferably SQL or otherwise any programming language of your choice to create and modify your database schema. There will be an initial script that creates the first version and further changes in schema, metadata and data are to be done through scripts only. Multiple teams in a project working on different branches of the application can maintain their own database instances and the versions of scripts that represent various points of branches (pulls and pushes) are stored along with the corresponding code. Some kind of automation script needs to work on the team’s database instance to run the current version of the database scripts to bring the database to the state of code at that level. This ensures that during a merge process, the database is updated automatically to reflect the current state of the application.
Incremental versioning of the database scripts is a simple and straightforward method to track changes in incremental versions of SQL scripts and logs. During the merge all increments are applied to the database to bring it to the current state. The extra overhead here is the need of manual actions from developers or DBA to run the incremental scripts during merges.
 
Who is responsible – DBAs or Developers?
Once an application is deployed, the DBA takes control of the database administration. While developers continue to work on the application codebase repository, modifying code and database, and finally do a merge for a release, DBA gets the new code with installation and upgrade script for database. In this model of continuous delivery, DBAs scope does not cover database version control but developers do. The exception is that DBA can monitor and audit database versions if he can be a part of database versioning. For this purpose, it is recommended to provide the DBA with their own test and QA database version repository. They can comfortably perform all the needed activities like benchmarking, analysis, optimization, auditing etc. and can find the best possible schema, structure and configuration. All these attributes and information can be conveyed to the developers as SQL scripts or as metadata or as plain text and developers can take this information as guidelines for next release. Like this, DBAs can be active contributors to the growth and development of entire application including the database.

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